Origin Of Penicillin
Alexander Fleming is a known Scottish pharmacologist, researcher and biologist who discovered the antibiotic known as penicillin. Penicillin was an antibiotic discovered in the year of 1928 and has proven to be very useful (Markel et al 2011). This is the time where antibiotics were introduced to the world and research on it had started to begin (Markel et al 2011). It was significantly used after World War ll when it was officially manufactured (Markel et al 2011). Penicillin is hugely produced in the United States of America but it has become more popular in many other countries around the world including Canada.
Benefits of The Antibiotic
This medication is beneficial for humans to treat any type of infection more specifically pneumonia, rheumatic fever and gonorrhea. Penicillin G is the antibiotic that is used on animals to treat their infections and viral diseases. Illnesses that can form due to pathogenic diseases within the animal consist of E.coli, Actinobacillus, Vibrio and variety of others. It can aid with the interior part of the body, such as the lungs, heart, mule tissues, skin and any other organ or body part. Also the antibiotic can prevent viruses or any bacterial diseases from developing with the human or animals body. Antibiotics are made up of bacteria and different fungi, penicillin is produced from both white and blue mould of penicillium (Doren et al 1978). This bacteria and fungi based antibiotics help with destroying unfamiliar viruses and diseases that form within the body from the knowledge of moulds having the ability to destroy particular bacteria’s (Doren et al 1978). This is very beneficial for both humans and animals to maintain a healthy body and stop from a new bacterial disease from spreading within the species or another species.
How Is It Produced and Used?
This product is manufactured in pharmaceutical companies by professional knowledgeable biologists and researchers (Mestrovic et al 2016). Researchers and biologists had to understand how to manufacture the penicillin into a helpful medicine. The blue and white penicillium mould produces the penicillin naturally (Mestrovic et al 2016). Since scientist are able to produce the antibiotic in their factories where the drug is manufactured in massive fermentation tanks with the help of additional ingredients, one of them being sugar. This will aid with the overall growth of the antibiotic; the penicillin is then isolated from the mold itself. Lastly, the drug is then purified to be used as an anti-bacterial medicine. Also this drug can go through a manufacturing process consisting of three different phases; which is, starting the culture, fermentation, isolation along with purification, and lastly the refining process (Mestrovic et al 2016). Starting the culture includes the isolation of the product in the research lab where biologists learn how to produce more of the product and how to begin the process of producing a larger amount of the product (Mestrovic et al 2016). Then Fermentation is where the fermentation tank is used to mix the penicillin with other necessary biology based products which help produce the penicillin to be used for animals (Mestrovic et al 2016). Isolation and purification includes where certain soluble compounds are separated from one another and purified (Mestrovic et al 2016). The water soluble products are separated from the oil-soluble product which is the penicillin (Mestrovic et al 2016). Lastly the refining stage where the product is put into different forms where it can be taken as a capsule, which is a powder form or by a syringe which is a liquid form (Mestrovic et al 2016). Penicillin G for animals does come in different sizes that acquire different costs. Bottle sizes are 100 mL, 200 mL and 500 mL, they are cased in packages of 48 or 12 bottles when shipped to different countries around the globe. They can be injected in a variety of different species such as lamb, chickens, pigs, cattle, sheep and many more. The dosage amount varies depending on the size of the animals that is being given the antibiotic.
Benefits For Canada
Bringing in more money for Canada's economy with exporting penicillin G will also aid in gathering more pharmaceutical companies and manufactures of the penicillin drug to get more involved in exporting this medicine to other countries which will help Canada’s economy even more. Also it is a beneficial product for Canada as it provides farmers with healthier livestock that can prevent them from carrying or developing any bacterial diseases that could spread and potentially harm consumers. Penicillin G continues to benefit animals, as penicillin is naturally produced from penicillium.
How To Handle Penicillin G
The amount increases with body size, 1 to 10 kilograms only 0.25 milliliters are injected into the animal whereas a 100 to 200-kilogram animal will be injected with 2 to 4 millimeters of penicillin G. This also ensures that once the product is bought it will last the buyer a long period of time before they need to purchase more of the antibacterial medicine. To manufacture together a penicillin plant costs around fifty to fifty-two million US dollars. This includes equipment, utilities, labor and conversions, costs for labor range around 22,500 dollars. The product does have health related side effects towards animals as it can cause loss of appetite or diarrhea. The drug can be stored in three different ways, at room temperature in a capsule bottle. Secondly, the liquid solution is refrigerated in a bottle and must injected into the animal when it is between the temperature 2-8 degrees Celsius. The drug becomes useful after 14 days in the refrigerator where it can rest and the solution is able to mix when it is in liquid form. Lastly, when it is injected into the animal after it has been refrigerated for at least seven days and about twenty-four hours in order to be effective.
Manufacturing antibiotics and medication can be harmful to the environment as some are disposed into the sewers (Tatem A. J. et al 2011). This could lead to the presence of disposed antibiotics or medications in ground water and potentially drinking water if not completely eliminated in the sewage systems (Tatem A. J. et al 2011). Overall in Canada ever since penicillin G was discovered it has only had a positive influence on the environment as it is a naturally made antibiotic.
Constraints that this product has are that it may harm certain animals with different side effects that the antibiotic isn’t usually used on (Doren V. C. et al 1978). As some animals may react differently to the drug such as amphibians or reptiles and many others, this product is mainly used on farm animals. Penicillin production is beneficial for Canada as it continues to help build Canada’s economy due to the increased amount of money brought into the country by pharmaceutical companies, researchers and biologists.
- Tatem A. J., Rogers D. J., Hay S.I. (2011, Jul 28) Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145127/
- Markel H. (2013, September 27). The real story behind penicillin. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/the-real-story-behind-the-worlds-first-antibiotic/
- Doren V. C. (1978) Encyclopaedia Britannica: Penicillin Drug https://www.britannica.com/science/penicillin
- Mestrovic T. (2016). Penicillin Production. http://www.newsmedical.net/health/Penicillin-Production.aspx